Cerritos College Business Week: The Law of Attractions

Cerritos College Business Week: The Law of Attractions


[Music] Good morning. Good morning. I’m in a peculiar industry
which is both non-profit, but it’s also a business that
impacts tourism, economy, and creates a whole
bunch of jobs. So just to give
you a perspective, the number of
people last year who went to all major league
games in the United States was about 800 and– what about 434 million. The number of people who
went to museums last year was about 850 million. So they are destinations
that actually bring in significant
dollars to local economies and national economies,
and so on and so forth. But they’re also in
a separate niche. So they are away
from theme parks. They are away from
commercial attractions. And they are in this non-profit
sector which actually has a different tax connotation. So most of the museums are
registered as 501(c)(3)s. And when people donate or
sponsor museum related events, they get a tax write off
for some of those expenses. So that sustains the museums. They are glues that keep
civil societies together. In Los Angeles
you have some slew of very interesting museums, in
addition to themed attractions. So does San Francisco. It has about 17, 18 museums
that bring in significant tax dollars. And leisure tourism is
kind of enhanced because of museums as destinations. So today what I will do is
I’ll show you a blitz of slides in very rapid succession. Some of these are
projects that I’ve been involved with personally. And like Judy mentioned,
we used to head– I used to head an
exhibit design production studio in Midland, Michigan,
not far from Northwood campus. And this organization handled
about 25 museum projects, about $45 million of
business every year. And they did all
the backing work, including master
planning, design, build, engineering, production,
procurement, and execution, implementation, and
on-site testing. So there is a
whole industry that is at the back end of the
museums that are created. Once created, there is a
maintenance and upgrade requirement, which is
a separate business. There are some museums
that are profit making. So some of the
prominent examples are the Spy Museum
in Washington, DC. Has anyone been to the
international Spy Museum? There’s one person there. So that’s run by a family
that runs a shopping mall complex and a chain,
the Malrite Group, and they make about $30 million
a year in profits, if not more. So the revenue streams with
most museums is not just ticket sales but they also do
facility rentals, weddings, parties, special events, and
all those, and cafeteria, and retail. All those kind of add
to that business model to sustain a lot of museums. Some museums also
have studios within. So what they do is they
bid on commercial jobs at non-commercial rates. And that makes it
viable for some museums because they have the expertise. They can lend their
consulting services or they can help lend their
sort of design expertise to set up new exhibits,
or set up new museums, or consult for projects within
the United States or overseas. So that is another way
that museums are kind of making some extra revenue. With the digital age the museums
have a different monetization model. Some of the new museums
and modern museums have woken up to
it on the potential of how to monetize using apps. And there’s a back
end reservation system called aRes that
supports hotel industry, and tourism industry,
travel industry, bus, and logistics, ships and
boats, and so on and so forth. So the industry is
becoming very sophisticated at the back end, which
you normally don’t see. There is also geo-fencing
that a lot of museums do. So for example, if you’re in
the proximity of the Petersen Automotive Museum
for example you can be geo-fenced in that area. And that’s a very powerful
marketing tool that kind of negates all the
other attractions and only focuses on that
particular attraction, and the offerings that it does. So every time you’re in the
proximity, that pops up. There is also
triangulation, which is being experimented with. Our habits, as creatures. You know, we have certain
habits for shopping, certain habits for visitation of
museums when we are on travel. And the triangulation
intelligence, or the big data actually allows a curated
form of targeting people when they are potentially in
a touristy location, to say, OK, these are the
top three museums. And it pops up on
your mobile devices, and so on and so forth. So the industry has
multiple connotations. And I will run through
a blitz of slides. And then if I have time,
I’ll share a little bit about what is happening in
San Francisco with the climate museum initiative. So museums, you know
there are iconic museums. There are single
museum complexes. There are museums with a
diversity of topics, everything from culinary arts to hair. There are sites
specific museums, which is, for example, if you
have a dinosaur dig site, it is site specific. You can’t have that
museum elsewhere. You are near the dig
site, or on the dig site. Or a site which has
historical importance. Then you have museums
in mall clusters. For example, the
Smithsonian has 12 museums in a one mile cluster. San Diego has seven or eight
museums in a one mile cluster. So they actually sort of
multiply revenue streams. There are pop up museums. There are mixed use
museums called bleisure, where business and
leisure are combined. Then there are
cultural districts. So there are countries
that are planning larger cultural districts, which
is a residential and a museum and a cultural complex
all in one location. Then there are ecomuseums
that promote ecotourism. The lifestyle museums. Living museums. Living museums have live
animals like aquariums, kept living museums and so on. And then you have virtual
museums and mobile museums. Some of the industry
estimates as you can see that China went
from 25 museums in 1940s to 3,500 museums in 2015. So it’s one of the
biggest spurt in museum growth of any country anytime. Canada by comparison at
that same time in 20 years invested a very small
amount of money. The United States, not so much. Abu Dhabi, Saadiyat
Complex and Ferrari World are just two projects. And you can see the
dollars associated with the spending
on just the Ferrari World in Yas Marina which
is about $40 billion. And the Saadiyat Cultural
Complex of seven museums, about $27 billion. The Grand Egyptian Museum and
the Lucas Museum in Los Angeles are in the $1 billion realm. So how did it start? It started off with
an architect called Frank Gehry who created the
Experience Music Project. So inspired by Jimi Hendrix,
and inspired by four smashed guitars, that’s
the sort of mangled complex that came up in the 80s. It has the colors of the
four electric guitars that were very popular in the 70s. And the crumpled
fretboard is actually on the top of the building. So Frank Gehry lives
in Santa Monica. He created this museum
after having a conversation with Paul Allen, who was the
founder of Vulcan Ventures, and a co-partner of Bill
Gates and founded Microsoft. And he saw a horse head on
his desk made with you know, scraps of steel. And he said, well you know
if you can create something like this, we can call
it the blob or a whoosh. And it can shake up
downtown Seattle. It’s too gray. It’s too bland. It’s too square. And so this was
the result of that. And this became an iconic
museum when it opened. It had audio guides. It had a few things that were
kind of ahead of its times. And over the years it has
mutated into different things, museum of science fiction,
museum of popular culture, and it has added
some connotations, and is still trying
to find an identity. But this was the beginning
of iconic museums. Bilbao. The same architect
many years later created the Guggenheim
extension in Bilbao, Spain. There was nothing much
going on in Bilbao till this thing
was planted there. And all of a sudden the tourism
economy and everything else the first year, I think it hit
about $250 million in revenues. By the time it got to year
four, it had exceeded $1 billion in localized revenue
and regional employment. And that was called
the Bilbao effect. And you can see why that
effect was very popular. The building is made
of titanium and it reflects moving
clouds and sunlight, and kind of seems
to change color. And it’s kind of
dynamic in its presence. The National Museum
Saudi Arabia. So again, you know creation
of an attraction from nothing. They didn’t have
any collections. They didn’t have
any notion of what they would put in the museum,
because most of the traditions were Bedouin traditions,
oral traditions. And they hired a Japanese
Canadian architect by the name of Raymond
Moriyama to create the National Museum of Saudi Arabia. It was called King Abdulaziz
Al Durat Murabba Palace when it opened,. And I was in charge of a small
section of this project way back I think in 1996. The same architect, Frank Gehry,
created this fashion blob. It’s a cloud, a fashion cloud. This is now constructed. This is just outside of Paris,
sponsored by Louis Vuitton. Cesar Pelli. This is the magic carpet
of science, the Connecticut Science Center. And Julie and I were involved
with the same company that actually put all the exhibits
inside the Connecticut Science Center. And it was built
for $155 million. They spent about $80
million dollars in exhibits. And you know, this attraction
came up and all of a sudden, now it is a hub for major
science conversations, and environmental
sort of movement in New Haven, that area. This is the Denver Art Museum. Some of you may have seen it. It’s designed by Daniel
Libeskind, known for his very striking architectural form. And so the experience was
called the igasm, if you will. This is the Utah Museum
of Natural History made with local materials. So the local stone
and copper are used in the building facade. It has similar sort of very
dramatic views on the inside. What makes this interesting is
that you see the solar panels on the top right? That powers most
of the building. But the panels also
have some sensors. And the sensors trigger a
combination of art forms within the building. And essentially you see these
plant silhouettes grow and wilt depending on the temperature and
humidity outside the building. So it kind of attracts
people at a different level, so that you’re not
staring at empty walls. There’s things
happening on the walls. This was in Mexico City,
some of you may have seen it. It’s the privately funded
Soumaya Museum of Art. It’s a twisted torrid, so again,
the structure has no pillars in it, it’s a torrid. And you can see, it’s,
I think, very close to a shopping complex. Private collection. And pretty much, a
family enterprise, but a very popular
destination that adds to a regular shopping
experience in the proximity. This is a really interesting
contemporary art space. If your travels take you
there, please check it out. Kengo Kuma is one of the
leading Japanese architects who’s been working on a number
of fantastic museum projects in different parts of the world. And this is a project from
Scotland, Nestle Chocolates. So again, a destination
off of the highway. It looks like a
chocolate wrapping and it’s attached to
a chocolate factory. So there is a corridor
that leads you to– this is the corridor that
leads you to the chocolate factory in the back. Korea, this is a
International Film Festival Museum with a drive-through. Ability to take your car up. There’s a theater
up there, and you can see the spiral ramp
that takes people up there. The theater experience is
a multi theater complex. The next one is in Israel. It’s the– it’s how you
take just to cuboids and transform it with five
ribbons of Corten steel. So the first sculptural
element that you experience is the building itself. And again, because
the building is kind of open and closed
from different sections, it yields sunlight in
different directions, it adds to the
flavor of the space. Beauty and the beast. So John Cocteau, the
hair of the beast inspired the museum in Monaco. And this is what the
private museum looks like. It has a very dramatic
facade during the daytime, and at nighttime, it
is even more dramatic. This is a nighttime shot. So again, a
phenomenal attraction, and one of the most expensive
real estates in the world. New museums that are coming
up are equally dramatic. This is in Copenhagen.
This is a dig site, it actually goes several
levels underground. And that’s the
view from the top. That’s a view from outside. There’s a whole
tropical rain forest on the inside, some
of the renderings of a very ambitious project. In your hometown, right here,
you see the power of the Broad. The Broad family
has commissioned two museum, simultaneously. One is in the Michigan
State University campus, which is a dramatically
different building. And then you have
this one here, which has been fairly popular
ever since it opened, against all odds. It lets in diffused
light, minimizes the use of regular lighting. Now there are museums
in illustration. So this is like pencil points. So this facade looks like pencil
points, and it’s in Madrid. You can get a sense
of what that has done to the art of illustration. This one is– the top
left, the little cube that you see, far on the
right, top right, there, that’s where oil was discovered
for the first time in Saudi Arabia. And it was called the Well
of Prosperity, eventually called Well of Knowledge. And King Abdulaziz
Center for Knowledge– it has changed its
name a few times. But it’s designed by
Snohetta, from Norway, and the building is designed
like three or four pebbles kind of depending on each other,
and leaning on each other, to kind of hold up a
cultural construct. So again, a very
ambitious project. There are seven
or eight countries involved in creation of
this particular museum, as an attraction. The next one looks
like a serpent. It sort of sits on two
mountains, two hills, which was a prehistoric dig
site in Korea, South Korea. And designed by a French team. You can see the top left,
how it looks like a serpent. And the lighting at
night propagates, or seems to sort of give
this notion of propagation of knowledge. Museum of Tomorrow. So again, it started in
2015 in Rio de Janeiro, designed by Lorenzo Piano,
that’s the architect. The content has been developed
jointly with IRIS, IBM, and that adds a lot of
punch to the content areas within the museum. California Academy of Sciences. Again, designed
by Lorenzo Piano. So it kind of looks
like Teletubby land, but it’s a very
complex building. $480 million dollars,
it’s a LEED Platinum, the only LEED Platinum museum
building in the United States. But it’s also high maintenance. It has a living roof,
as you can tell, which is an evolution of the
Seven Hills in San Francisco. And this is an aerial
shot of what it looks like, another shot, here. And there are some
views on the inside. So the reason I’ve shown you
this is as an attraction, there are multiple attractions
in the same complex. Same park has the de
Young Museum, designed by Herzog and de Meuron. It has the arboretum, it
has a Japanese garden, and it has the California
Academy of Sciences. So it is a cluster, you can’t
do all of them on the same day. But if you are tourist,
and if you just want to dip your fingers in all
of them, you can, if you like. But that’s the beauty of once
you are there with your family or friends, you can spend a lot
of time absorbing a completely different set of experiences. The complexes that I’ve
been talking about, this is one of the complex
in Saadiyat off of Abu Dhabi, and they conceived
this entire district with multiple
museums, residences, and other businesses, all
in one single cluster, as a massive economic driver
and as an anchor for culture. It has some of
the top architects of the world who have conceived
different large museums. The interesting thing is
that about 50 years ago, you can see the ruling family,
and you can see no shoes, you can see a falcon, because
of falconry, top right. That’s Sheikh Zayed. And the National
Museum celebrates what they’ve achieved in
the 50 years, or 60 years. These are like the
wings of the falcon, but they’re actually
cooling towers. Very ambitious National
Museum project. Those are some of these
shots from the opening, with Queen Elizabeth. And views of the building. Frank Gehry is constructing
a museum there, as well. And Tadao Ando, who’s, again, a
very famous Japanese architect, is conceiving a maritime museum,
a third of it is underwater. Zaha Hadid, who is known as
the Queen of the Curve, who passed away a few years
ago, conceived their sports and stadium complex, with 180
degree views of both Dubai side and the Abu Dhabi side. The star attraction, that opened
most recently, is this one. It’s designed by Jean Nouvel. And this is a top view. The building is designed
like a sand dune and it’s perforated
with the mesh pattern, so the side view
looks like this. And you enter the museum through
the lobby, through water, and the sort of punctured
pattern on the dune let’s loose a rain
of light and that becomes your first painting,
where you are actually involved in that process as you walk in. So as an attraction, it’s
one of the pristine sort of attractions. There are other complexes
that are being conceived. This is outside of Seoul, Korea. And that’s, again,
a very ambitious, zero carbon city combo,
where lifestyle and museums all kind of blend together
in a very futuristic complex. Hong Kong is in the
middle of a revival. Off of Kowloon, there, they
have some ambitious plans of a cultural district. In fact, I’m heading
there in two weeks to speak to some of
the early planners. And these are some of the shots
from Museum Concepts in China. And you can see how
ambitious they are and how massive they are
in their scope and scale. This, in particular, has
resonance with Los Angeles, as the hub of movie making. This is a team from Europe
that has created this complex for a cartoon and animation. It’s a complex, it has hotels,
it has a museum, it has rides, it has all kinds of things
woven into a very large complex. There are smaller museums,
but equally dramatic. This is the Oct
Museum in Shenzhen. Inside views. This is the Datong Art Museum,
again, made of Corten steel to look like bamboo. And again, the
scale of planning, it’s a very large complex,
and see a sense of– it’s 330,000 square feet. And a lot of museums
use local materials, or recycled materials. And this particular example
won the Pritzker Prize. It’s located in a town where
brick making was the business, and they recycled all
the bricks from the kilns and the texture of the
building is actually imbibed from all the
recycled materials that they could collect, so
for this ambitious, fantastic execution, the 2012 Pritzker
Prize went to Wang Shu. This is a very large complex,
again, designed by Zaha Hadid. And you can see
the size and scale of this massive complex,
multi-use complex. The theater space, the
inside space, again, a phenomenal, phenomenal
project that is going to completely revitalize. It has an impact
radius of 2000 miles. This is a project that is
unfolding in Egypt, the Grand Egyptian Museum. Again, the scale of
the project is dictated by the size of the artifacts. As you can see, some of
the gigantic– that’s Ramses, there. And how that statue was moved
with a massive engineering jig. And you can see this massive
trailer with 42 sets of wheels taking Ramses through Cairo into
this new Grand Egyptian Museum complex. Again, the scale
of the complex is really massive, it’s over 1.5
million square feet, I think. And it’s designed by two
young architects who’ve never designed a museum of this
scale, or a museum, period. And you can see the
human scale in comparison to the facade of the building
complex that has been proposed. And there is a grand
staircase in the middle, from where you can
see the pyramids. And it is snug on one
side of the Giza Plateau. So it’s an homage
to sun, sunlight. Cars, because we are in a
car related industry, here. Porsche, the Porsche
Museum of Design. Again, you can see the
power of Porsche design. They also have a
design studio in-house, and this kind of gives
you a sense of that. Harley-Davidson,
the United States. So this is the Harley Museum,
if you haven’t been there, please check it out. And as you know, Harley became a
cult and a sort of culture unto itself. And the museum kind of
celebrates some of those. Mercedes-Benz, in Stuttgart. Again, an homage to excellence
in automotive engineering and driving. And the mother of all car
related museums and complexes is the Ferrari World. The top left, you can
see, there was not a blade of grass on Yas
Marina, on that island. When I went there,
I think in 2005, there was not a blade of grass. We had four pegs in a
location to park our trailer, construction trailer. And there were 15,000
construction trailers. And there were 37,000
workers on site. And the project was
executed in 54 months, with a price tag of $40 billion. Some say it’s $42 billion,
but it’s by $40 billion. Many, many contractors
involved in this process. The entire set of rides
was designed in Cincinnati. And it was pretty amazing to see
how fast this project came up. It has a Formula One race
track, it has a hotel complex, it has 12 galleries of a museum,
and it has the world’s fastest rides. And that’s the
largest corporate logo you can see from outer space. It is also a brand bubble. So what that means is
that in the Ferrari World, you cannot have a KFC or a
McDonald’s or Starbucks or any other brand. The brand bubble protects– every business that is
there is Ferrari branded. These are simulators that use
confidential Ferrari data sets that puts you through G-forces. Each simulator, in those
days, was $3 million, made by a Dutch
company called Cruden. That’s the complex, that’s
the hotel complex, the custom exhibits, each upwards of
$1 million, $1.5 million, $2 million. And of course, every
Ferrari that is there is high dollar worth. Some projects, more
than attractions, are a result or the birth of
some serious cultural issues. Hawaii is a case in point. Anyone from the Big
Island of Hawaii? Or anyone who’s been there? So, the Big Island of Hawaii,
as you probably may know, holds the world’s largest
optical telescopes. So because the viewing
conditions are pristine, 16 countries have invested
money in optical telescopes. And that includes–
so on the top left, you can see how the
telescopes are dotted. That includes Subaru,
Gemini, Keck, NASA IRTF, Caltech,
Canada/France/Hawaii Joint Astronomy Center. So these are some of the
bigger telescopes on Mauna Kea. Because this is a
science reserve, declared by the University of Hawaii,
which means restricted access, there is a growing
divide between the Hawaiian
communities, who have holy sites and sacred
sites on the mountain, versus some of the interests
of the astronomy community. And most recently, that’s
kind of bubbled into a series of legal and other
confrontations associated with a National Science
Foundation grant for upwards of $1 billion for establishment
of a 30 meter super telescope. Compared to access and other
issues associated with it. So those are some of the
ceremonial rights that are performed atop the mountain. Those are some of the
early drawings of what we were thinking, our role was
to create a mitigation center that educates the
astronomers and the Hawaiians on the virtues of
human ingenuity, of exploring the deep
skies, if you will. And the building is designed
as a take off from the three mountains on the Big Island,
Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai, and
the sunken crater is the Kilauea volcanic crater. So that’s how it
is designed, it’s got the titanium cones,
construction shots. You get a sense of how
it all came together. Opening. And it has served its
purpose, to some degree, but there is more to
go in that journey. Santa Barbara Sea Center. So this was– the pier had
burned down, once upon a time. It was revived, and there is
a vet lab and a sea center created as an extension
to the Natural History Museum in Santa Barbara. And most of the
exhibits in the vet labs were created in San Francisco. Winemaking. Copia. So this is the American
Wine and Food institute. It was financed by Mr.
Mondavi when he was alive, and you can get a sense of
some of the inside shots. A similar wine museum
in Chile, in Santiago. And a wine museum in Bordeaux. So this has transformed
Bordeaux’s economy, because first of all, it’s had
this liquid architecture that looks like a decanter, but
also is so iconic that it has sort of spurred the
economy and created Bordeaux as an anchor for many things. Tillamook, where the cheese
comes from, Tillamook cheese. There’s a LEED
Gold building that talks about the forest
fires and deforestation. So this was a site where there
were three very large forest fires and the ash fell
in the Pacific Ocean in the 40s and 50s, and then
it also unleashed the largest deforestation program, with 10
million saplings being planted. And when I was
there, the opening– again, was built by
design craftsmen, I was there, at
the opening, there were firemen who had
brought their grandkids and they had planted
saplings 50 years ago. Hong Kong. This is an interesting exhibit. I mentioned about live exhibits,
this has live crocodiles, it’s a Borneo peat swamp,
so it has husbandry involved, trap doors,
and so on and so forth. It’s part of a very large
international wetland center in Hong Kong. Artifact specific. This is a submarine. It’s in the basement of the
Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. And we had created, again,
the same company in Michigan, we created some
of these exhibits. Star Spangled Banner. Again, an iconic
artifact that inspired the American national anthem. Was stitched in 1812 by
Mary Pickersgill and it flew over Fort McHenry,
it was quite massive, the size of almost this room. And it was that
big because it had to be seen from
a great distance. And after the war was over, it
was with General Armistead’s family until 1904. The family gave it
to the Smithsonian, and until ’64, it remained
in the arts and industries building, all folded up. And then was put up in a
glass case, half folded out. And then it hung in the lobby
of the American History Museum for many years. And then the Secretary
of the Smithsonian said, well you know– he called Ralph Lauren of Polo
and said, well, your symbol is the flag and do you want
to give $15 million to fix it? And he said yes. And so the extensive
restoration process began. And it took, I believe,
eight years to restore it. And it’s now on display if
your travels take you to DC. It’s in this bulletproof
oxygen chamber. Those are some shots
from the chamber when it was under construction. And this is the
finished chamber. It has the section for the
national anthem projected at the back, which might
seem like a simple thing, but there is no beams,
so it’s low lumen levels. And there is no beam of light
traversing across the gantry. And there’s no
parallax distortion on the verses on either
side, left and right. That’s the opening ceremony
with President Bush. Many of you may have seen
this flag, that inspired, of course, many things,
including movies, but also a museum,
National Marine Corps Museum that’s in Quantico. And these are some
of the battle scenes, again produced by our
company back then. But not everything
is big budget. This is a very small budget,
but a very powerful museum, called Museum of Broken Hearts. It’s in Zagreb. And it talks about, of
course, broken hearts, broken relationships, and they
collect curatorial material from people in shopping malls
or in other places and people share their stories. And it’s not just the
story of relationships between two people, it’s
also the Balkanization, conflict of war, fight between
neighbors and communities, that is brought in in a very
interesting, poignant way inside the very small museum. But a very interesting
and powerful museum. It blends humor with difficult
subjects, and poetry, and so on and so forth. So for example, when I was
there, I saw, in a case, I took a look a few times and
there was a little snuff box. And it said, “Magic Potion,”
and at the back of it, it said, “Doesn’t Work.” The Building of Exhibits is an
industry, the back end of it. And I’ll give you
some glimpse of what it takes to build some
of these exhibits. This was our production
shop in Michigan. We built a lot of
exhibits for Mrs. Mubarak, working on the Suzanne Mubarak
Science Exploratory Center in Cairo, Egypt. Again, a multilingual,
multidisciplinary exhibits that taught from Mars
Rover to stem cell to a walk through a human
heart to astronauts. This is outside the
Mubaraks’ office, and this is the complex. Move on to Singapore. So this is a Museum
of Science and Art, which is a section
of marina based– how are we doing for time? We’re doing good for time? Yep. OK. So this is an oculus
that collects rainwater. If your travels take you to
Singapore, you can take a peek. This is a double
helix bridge that takes you to marina basins. And then there are some
other large complexes. This is a living heritage
complex in the Himalayan foothills, in northern India,
designed by Moshe Safdie, who designed Skirball here. You can see the scale
of this complex, it’s a 100 acre site, 25
galleries, 650,000 square feet. The pedestrian bridge is
a quarter of a mile long, the water body is what,
about seven acres? Here’s a shot at night. And it talks about universalism. So there are museums,
which don’t have artifacts, but is about ideas. And the human
rights, universalism. There are a number of
museums that are about ideas, and this is one of them. So it deploys sort of
a metaphor or a simile, vanishing crafts and
poetry and hymns, to kind of convey the
impact of universalism. It’s a volumetric
space, I’ll quickly run through some
of these slides. Traditional trades. Opening shots. Earthquake. So there is a museum
complex coming up on a 400 acre site that focuses
on a massive earthquake that took many lives. It’s a memorial and an
earthquake-related museum, with a disaster recovery command
center in the same location. The building goes up 150
meters alongside a mountain, and the roofing has the seismic
folds of seismic activity. A human rights museum,
designed about Antoine Predock, in Winnipeg, Canada. And another human rights museum
with a different dimension is the Nanjing Massacre Museum. And then, of course,
there’s another one, which is the National Center
for Civil and Human Rights in Atlanta, Georgia. It’s like interlocking arms. I’m going to run through
the next few slides, they’re kind of
difficult slides. They are about
enactment of Darfur. It’s called “Still Death.” Those are actors getting
ready for enactment, and those are some
enactment shots. So these are experiences
that are in an area from where, if you
feel uncomfortable, you can walk away. So it’s in a semi-open area,
so you can walk away from it. But the impact of storytelling
is quite powerful. The 9/11 Museum. If you haven’t been there,
please check it out. Again, it is aided
a lot by your apps, you can actually stand in
different vantage points across Manhattan and
actually see some footage from back when. I’ll run past this. And the dinosaurs, a
very popular topic. So most recently, I was
building a dinosaur museum up in northern Alberta,
at a dig site where a specific species of dinosaur
was discovered, called pakirinous locustae. And again, how do you
create an attraction in the middle of nowhere? So it’s on Alaska
highway, there’s nothing there but canola
fields for miles and miles. But what is important
is this is grand cash, you can see the dinosaur tracks. There are sauropods,
therapods, and the rock surface is shifted at 70 degrees. You can see one of the
paleontologists rappelling up and the snow is settled
into the dinosaur tracks. And the idea was to
create a museum that emulates the dig site. And so the building
actually goes under. And we roped in some
talent from Los Angeles, so my good friend Dan
Aykroyd showed up, he’s a motorcycle buff. So he put out a call to bring
1,000 riders in support. And you can see the unbroken
chain of motorcycles coming up from Grand Prairie, Northern
Alberta to the dinosaur site. You can see all the dinosaurs– all the motorcycles there. And the interesting
thing about this museum was that we introduced
helicopter rides to fly over the
bone bed site, so we introduced NR-44 and
BellSouth helicopters, which would take off from
two helipads in that location and fly you over
the Jurassic land. Some shots of the opening. Helicopter. Parking lot. And you can see,
that’s Alaska highway. And it’s pretty desolate. It’s oil and fracking
country, and one of the problems
we experienced was with the Hutterites
and Mennonites, who don’t believe in dinosaurs. And so that was a different
sort of engagement, so that they would appreciate
history for what it is. And these are shots
on the inside. It’s a combination
of local materials and a lot of technology. Marine life. So we run the Sea Lion
Center in San Francisco. And we run the Aquarium of
the Bay, which is on Pier 39. Sea lions suddenly
started coming to Pier 39 after the Prieta Loma
earthquake, about 30 years ago. And why they started
coming is anybody’s guess, but the best guess is that
they came because the food. And the food– with
herrings travel to that location because
of temperature changes and seismic activity
under the ocean. And as a result, they
face a number of problems. There is pollution, they
just– microplastics. There is a significant
amount of domoic acid, which is a neurotoxin that impacts
their brains, disorients them. It impacts all animals,
but you discern more of that in this
little marine mammal. And we address a
number of issues within the aquarium, where
the sea lion health, as a small lens for climate change,
pollution, ocean acidification, sea level rise, et cetera. And about a year and a half ago,
we embarked on a massive plan to transform the aquarium
into a climate and ocean conservation living museum. And last October,
October 5th, we had Dr. Jill Biden
come there, we unveiled the vision for
what we are thinking. And this is the
existing building and this is what the new
building would look like. It has some interesting nuances. The building uses a California
species of microalgae as photo bioreactors to generate power. It sits on a micro
grid using fish waste. It uses wind, solar, and
other sources of energy. It has a deep ocean exploration
learn-and-launch center. It has a tunnel that
connects these two bubbles. It has a theater space,
which is a combination of an industrial space with
ROVs and HUVs suspended from the ceiling. And of course, projection space. This is what the building
looks like on Pier 39, and the volumetric dimension. And this is what it
looks like from Alcatraz. And this is a combination
of both shots. This is coming up
in your backyard. It’s a $1 billion investment
from George Lucas and the Lucas Foundation. And the construction
has started. So in three or four years,
you will have a billion dollar museum in LA that focuses– it’s called the Museum
of Narrative Arts. So yes, there is a
lot of technology, but it also celebrates
imagination and narrative arts. So this is– there are two
large museum projects in LA, one is a billion dollar
expansion of LACMA, [INAUDIBLE],, which has
a number of challenges. And then, of course, this
privately funded museum by George Lucas and
his wife, Melody. And I think both of
them have the potential to have a massive
impact on tourism in LA. And the brand equity, the
brand value, the business model also runs on a very
interesting scale. The three others that
are in a similar cluster is LACMA, the
Petersen Automotive, and the Academy of Motion
Pictures Museum that is coming up, which has been
delayed so many times over. The planning process
started 17 years ago, and there are cost overruns,
upwards of $200 million as of date. So that gives you a sense
of what this industry is about and the potential
of this industry to galvanize economies and bring
people together and inspire communities or nations
to make changes, be it climate or be
it business or be it cultural diplomacy
or pure tourism. Be happy to take any questions. Yes, when you are
in a crowded market, where there are
other art museums and so many private galleries
to invest in another one, you’re competing for
the same market share. And how much can
the market sustain? There are companies that
do those studies, that kind of look at feasibility numbers. And obviously, they
must have seen something in investing in the
creation of the Broad. And as you can see, it’s
been very successful. Yes, sir. Congratulations, first of all,
on your environment and climate pollution renovation
as chief advisor. Now as chief advisor
I imagine you want to make the museums to be
climate friendly, if you will. And I noticed that you
had a couple of slides that were LEEDS certified. For the students
that don’t understand what LEEDS
certification means, I think it’s an important issue
because it reduces the carbon footprint, and also–
well, I’ll let you explain. So the question is about
LEED certification. So the– L-E-E-D. Pardon me? L-E-E-D. Yes, L-E-E-D. So it’s an
American standard that establishes energy
efficiency in buildings. So there are different
categories of certification. There is LEED Silver,
LEED Gold, LEED Platinum. LEED Platinum has two
sets of connotations, one is completely off the grid,
the second is on the grid, but compliant with LEED
platinum standards. The California
Academy of Museums, that Teletubby-like
building that you saw, is a LEED Platinum
building, which means that it has to
fulfill a massive checklist of commitments to recycling,
to the use of materials, to sustainable practices,
to adherence to sustainable development goals. It has to have materiality
that resonates with some of those requirements. And that can go into the
granularity of something like vegetable dyes,
the kind of chemicals you use on paints,
the way the wood is treated before it
is actually brought in as furniture equipment or
props within the building. So every supply chain
can be drilled down into specifics of
what would constitute as a truly sustainable
building that adheres to a number of standards. And the use of
electricity is primary, the use of recycled
water is primary. So there are some
baseline requirements, and there are final
requirements and more fine, and sort of granularity
of each of those streams. And that is what LEED
standards connote. And the American
Institute of Architects have added some tax connotations
to incorporation of some of the LEED technologies. So depending on which
state you’re in, depending on what LEED
certification level you’re at, you get certain incentives
for bringing in LEED standards to the construction process,
to the sustainability process, the maintenance process, and
the lifecycle costs of keeping these institutions sustainable. So that’s what it
is, in a nutshell. I’ve got a quick
question on that. When you say completely
off the grid, is that self-sustained
as far as energy goes? The question is about
being off the grid. The EcoCenter Park at
Heron’s Head in San Francisco is the first LEED off the
grid building in California. It is completely off the
grid, including your toilets. Everything is off the grid. Everything is recycled and
reused in that location. So if you Google the EcoCenter
Park at Heron’s Head, you will actually see this
LEED platinum building that is completely off the grid. So it’s not hardwired
to anything. And it’s a functional model that
demonstrates that it’s doable. And it’s sustainable,
it’s low maintenance, and it uses the
natural elements, be it wind, be it sunlight,
be it rainwater, be it vegetation, be it plantation
of vegetables and fruits. Out of all the projects
you’ve done, which one’s your favorite, and why? Which one is a
favorite, and why? No favorites. Because it’s very
easy to get dazzled by the numbers and the scale. There have been
experiments where, despite all the money spent,
the attraction is flat. So for example, when Disney
recently opened the Star Wars themed area, it fell flat. It opened with just
one ride, it has– you know now they’re
saying that it’ll open a second ride
next year, and so on so forth, but the opening was
flat, the experience was flat. The purpose of the
institution is more important than the packaging. So it’s like if
you have a spine, you have a brain kind of thing. You have to have the story
which makes it relevant. And you have to make
the story resonate with a diverse audience. And that’s the
measure of success, not the ticket sales in
year one or year two, the qualitative side of what it
does to you as a human being, I think that’s the true
measure of success. Or how it inspires a generation
of children to be plastic free, or to think about renewable
sources of energy, or to wonder about and ponder
on issues that will impact their sustenance down the line. So first project. So let’s do a visual on it. Thank you for that
“young” compliment, but I’m in my 50s, late 50s. And I’ve been in this
business for 34 years. And in 34 years, I’ve
worked on 108 projects, and this is the first one. So this was privately
funded by a family in India, in Western India, about 200
miles west of New Delhi. And they are, like
the Rockefellers, they are industrialists
with investment in textiles, heavy engineering,
ball bearings, oil, natural gas, ceiling fans,
a very diversified portfolio of businesses. And they took the taxable
wealth and decided to educate younger people
with science centers and planetariums, cancer
research hospitals, small industry
development research organizations, prototype
building stations, and so on. So they started this
process in the 1950s. So they are very far
sighted sort of family, and to put that in perspective,
Mr. Gandhi was assassinated in one of their temples. So they had interests in
temples, at one point, and then they said,
well, more than temples, people need to be educated
about science and technology. So I kind of grew up
in that environment. And when I graduated, this
was the first job that I had. This is the complex. And that’s the prime minister
of India at that time. And this had an observatory, a
planetarium, a science museum, a convention center, and
10 units of research, all in one complex. And it was
master-planned jointly with the City of Science
and Industry in Paris, so I was 22 when I went
to do the master plan. And then when I came
back and executed it, I became its director at 25. So that was fortuitous,
because it was not normal. So that sort of
triggered my interest. So I ran this place
for about seven years– that’s inside the planetarium,
the theater space, and so on. And I saw the potential of
what these attractions can do. The business model was
that the convention center would bring in the
money and would sustain the research associated with–
it was applied research, mostly, not fundamental,
but applied research. And the planetarium ran about 12
shows a day, 40 minutes a show, 12 shows a day, it is a
very, very busy place, and there is no
dearth of population. So that’s how I got
into this field. Like most Indian
parents, the museum is low on the totem pole of– because employment is
a big question mark. So I went to med school. And the first sight of the
cadaver, I kind of collapsed. So I said no more med school. And then I decided
to focus on museums. But I eventually ended up doing
a lot of medical exhibits. So I did an exhibit on 100 years
of cardiac care, St. Mike’s Hospital in Toronto. So everything from one
cardioplegia to pacemakers became part of that story. I did an exhibit for American
Lung Association, called Lung Express, so
it’s a gutted bus, it’s like a walk-through lung. And then I did an exhibit
on infectious diseases for the National
Institute of Health in DC. So you kind of find the topics
that you kind of gravitate to. So I would definitely recommend
the Petersen Automotive, primarily because,
of course, they have a fabulous collection of cars. But what they did in terms of
its business transformation. Because you’re all
business students. The creation of this
facade that looks like lubricant,
engine lubricant, is the master stroke. So it was a cuboid
warehouse, which had cars, with a little bit of a
concrete facade, if you look at the old photos
of the Peterson. And then you look
at the new one, and what it has done to
kind of galvanized the whole atmosphere, that is
their success story. That’s number one. Number two is the way
they put $100 million into this new project
without fundraising. They just went to
a bank and said, here’s the collateral, loan us,
and we are off to the races. Pun intended. So that’s number one. The second I would recommend is
a museum that celebrates ideas, be it human rights
or emancipation from slavery or
indigenous perspectives in post-colonial societies. Any institution that celebrates
an idea and a human desire for excellence. And how you tell that story
where artifacts are not prime. It’s a story of inspiration. So I think that is
really important. And the third, of course, is
anything where you learn more about your environment. Be it in association
with the natural world, know where you come off asking
certain questions of yourself as a human being and
asking questions as to how to become a better human being. So I think any institution that
creates that energy within you is a successful institution. So it could be different
things for different people. It could be culinary
arts for somebody or wine making for somebody, or
acting or theater or music. Those are all qualities, the
nine muses, that make us human. I think that’s the essence. So we are working
on this climate museum, which is a complicated
project unto itself. We have 23,000 animals in
our care, and 160 species. So we have to move all those
animals to a secondary location with life support system. And the choreography
of creating a building, while we move the
animals, while we meet our [INAUDIBLE] standards,
that’s a very complex task. So that’s what I’m
currently busy with. We have a satellite
office in Jamaica. We are planning a
museum in Jamaica. And we are also planning a
floating platform for climate. The first climate
museum is in New York, but the kind of climate
museum that we are planning is one of a kind, because it has– the one in New York is of a
very different scale and very different storytelling mode. There’s a lot of the
videography involved. And the way we are
going to tell the story is going to be very
immersive and very different. Well most definitely, yes. Because the question is that– whether this journey has made
me culturally more sensitive and better as a human being. I hope, better as a human being. But it does impact you,
because you, first of all, can’t execute a project which
is of a sensitive nature by being insensitive. You have to not just have
the ability to listen, but also you have
to have the heart to resonate with what
is being communicated. And because an
imposition from outside is never accepted
easily, you have to be– you have to cultivate
a team which owns the content. You don’t own the content,
but you can actually translate the content
into an experience, and that becomes the string
that holds everything together. So to give you an
example, of many of you heard of Derek Walcott? So Derek Walcott was a
Caribbean poet, poet laureate, won the Nobel Prize for Poetry. And there are a
number of museums that talk about
post-colonial societies and how cultural imprints are
either suppressed or carried forward in
post-colonial societies, and how perspectives
are telling stories, look at the same thing
from different angles. But if you were to
read some of his poems, or a few lines
from his poems, you would actually get
the sliver, which is the mission statement
of many, many museums that address this. So in one of his
poems, he says– so the sun never set
on the British empire, from Philippines to
Falklands, it had 50 colonies. In one of his poems,
it says, and I’m trying to think of the lines. “I come from a land where
the sun, tired of the empire, sets in the west. In setting so, it gives
birth to 1,000 stars. I have the love
of sea me, I have a little bit of Dutch,
nigger, and British in me. I can roll up the
sleeves of my white shirt and bare the white
scars on my brown skin. Either I am a nation
or I’m a nobody.” So that kind of
captures the essence of a lot of museums that talk
about the post-colonial angst. If you can be sensitive
to something like that, then I think you have
made some positive strides in becoming better as a person. And doing justice to
the tasks that you’ve been entrusted with,
to create something which is generational. So you have to set
aside your business mind and focus on something that
is greater than yourself. Right. The question is
about maintenance of an off-the-grid
grid building. It’s actually very
low maintenance. We used to run it
with two volunteers. Two volunteers. It is certainly possible,
but it’s not super practical. Especially with the
toilets and with IT requirements and– you know, you
can’t run a business that way, unless you are plugged onto
a wireless phone device. So it has some issues there. But it’s fairly cheap
to maintain that. So the question is about the
business model of museums. And the reason why they’re
in different locations. Let me answer the
second part first. Sometimes, it’s just
a regulatory process which is so frustrating
that a lot of businesses don’t want to deal with
over-regulated communities. So if it is easier
to just establish something on an
island, with literally no regulatory imposition
from neighborhood groups and communities and so on, then
it becomes practical for them to just do it there. They have the real estate, they
connect it with a causeway, make it a destination. It’s so fantastic that
you would actually hop into a car or public transit
to get there to look at it. The business model, that is a
combination of commerce and– it’s a for-profit, it’s a theme
park, so it’s a for-profit. But the business model for
most museums is nonprofit, so a 401 (c) 3, at
least the United States, is that they have an endowment,
just like universities and community colleges
have an endowment, the nonprofits, these
museums, have an endowment. So the endowment
sustains a rainy day. And the business model is
based on your ticket revenues, sponsorships, restaurants,
studio, and retail. So these five branches feed
into the revenue stream, and the museum cuts
its cloth according to how much money it has. So that’s one way of looking
at that business model. The for-profit museums,
like the Spy Museum and some of the museums in Vegas,
you collect the money and you make sure that
there is ample money to sustain the museum. And certain topics
have that appeal. And that’s why you
have franchises, like the Merlin Entertainment
Group has Madame Tussauds, or whatever else. They have that brand equity,
which they know that by putting x-amount of dollars– sea centers around
the world, they all have similar business models. You create a cookie
cutter sort of experience and you have a talent
pool or a staff pool that you kind of distribute
in different franchises, it’s like a franchise operation. So there are different
ways in which these nonprofits and for-profit
museums sustain themselves. The question is what was the
most difficult museum project, and what made it difficult? The project in
Hawaii was difficult. It still is. Still is. The issues are very deep. The issues are very deep. Just like we have
one navel, Hawaiians believe that they
have three navels. So it’s called Piko. So Piko weana, po’o, and
ma’i are the three navels. The umbilical cord of the
first born Hawaiian son is cut and wrapped
in tea leaves and put on Lake Waiau on Mauna
Kea, so the connection is very visceral. Imposition of telescopes,
in that context, you have to have a
different mindset to appreciate why the
connection is so difficult. Why the access is so
difficult. Then you have to look at where
is that common ground? The common ground is navigation. So they had their catamarans,
they sailed from New Zealand to Rapa Nui to Hawaii
and back and forth, using their own star charts. So they had dead
reckoning, as well as they had their
skills in navigation. While every European
explorer sailed mostly on the coastlines, the
Hawaiian navigators went smack in the
middle of the Pacific. It’s 2,500 nautical miles
from one end to the other. And how do you get there and
back, get there and back, like ferrying taxi? You have to have that
precision in terms of what you can execute. There is no sunscreen,
there is no restaurant food. You’re out in the open with
the elements on a moving catamaran, which is a feat unto
itself, of human endurance. That’s the common ground. How to bring that
conversation, and how to keep the conversation
going for the right reasons, was and is a challenge. There is a legal challenge,
because the annexation of Hawaii by the
United States has never been accepted by some
portions of the community. And there are challenges
of the International Court of Justice in The
Hague that challenges it. So there is the sovereign issue,
there is an issue of access, there is an issue
of sacred sites. There is an issue
of compensation, there is an issue
of cultural divide. There is a schism
between lack of dialogue, and there is pride on top of it. So how do you bring all
those facets, as an outsider, to bear on this process,
and what is that solution? You have 64 lawsuits, in those
days, about 15 years ago, there were 64 lawsuits. There are still
additional lawsuits. And the lawsuits pertain
to the expanded footprint of not just the super telescope,
which is 30 meters in diameter, but also something which
is known as an outrigger. So the Keck, in very lay
terms, is an interferometer. So what happens is that you
have Keck 1, Keck 2, twin domes. The diameter of the domes,
and the virtual diameter in between the domes,
forms the actual diameter of an interferometer. If you add outriggers, then
that multiplies the diameter and the reach of the telescope. So it really is a super
telescope, by any standards. So that is number one. Number two is something which
is called adaptive optics. So very lay terms, you
put a straw in a bottle, if the light comes from a rarer
medium to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal. And then it bends
away from the normal. So that’s the basic
physics of refraction. Each time we get a beam of
light from, let’s say, a star, it is passing from rare
medium to denser medium, to rare medium to denser medium,
and by the time you look at it, it appears to be twinkling,
because of that shift. Adaptive optics
applies millivolts of electricity underneath
these wafer thin mirrors to correct the aberration,
so that you get a clear dot. That has connotations with
star wars, with laser warfare, with beam reflection,
and so on and so forth. So there are many
forces at play. The stakes are
high, in that sense, with immediate
applications of technology. And the stakes are very high
for cultural sovereignty. So that makes it really
complex, as a ongoing process. So it’s purposed solar panel. There is a photovoltaic
storage system, so the excess power is stored
into batteries and batteries power the needs of some
of the electrical needs of the building. The square footage is
about 1,800 square feet. So it’s a very small unit. But then it has some outdoor
area associated with it. Thank you very much.

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